Nathaniel Abbey was born 1772 in Dutchess Co., Province of New York, and died in 1825 or 1826 in Hope Twp., Durham Co., Upper Canada, at about age 53. He is the son of Isaac Abbe of Windham, Windham Co., CT, and and Darla Potts of Coventry, Tolland Co., CT.
Mary "Polly" Winters was born April 11, 1777, in Dutchess Co., Province of New York, and died March 29, 1869, at the home of her daughter, Lurenda (Abbey) Henry, Port Oshawa, Whitby East Twp., Durham Co., Ontario, Canada, at age 92. Buried Pioneer Cemetery, Whitby East Twp, Durham Co., Ontario, Canada.
Nathaniel Abbey and Mary "Polly" Winters were married Unknown in Dutchess Co., NY.
Nathaniel Abbey and Mary "Polly" (Winters) Abbey had nine children:
Ontario was known as: "Upper Canada" from December 26, 1791, to February 10, 1841; "Canada West" from February 10, 1841, to July 1, 1867; and "Ontario" after July 1, 1867.
Nathaniel Abbey was born about 1775 in Dutchess Co., Province of New York.
Mary "Polly" Winters was born April 11, 1777 in Dutchess Co., Province of New York.
Nathaniel Abbey and Mary "Polly" Winters were married Unknown in Dutchess Co., NY.
Nathaniel Abbey died in 1825 or 1826 in Hope Twp., Durham Co., Upper Canada, at about age 51.
The 1861 Canadian Census shown Mary Abby (age 80) born in the United States is a widow and is living in the Henry household, South Waterloo, Waterloo Twp., Waterloo Co., Canada West.
Mary "Polly" (Winters) Abbey died March 29, 1869, in Port Oshawa, Whitby East Twp., Durham Co., Ontario, Canada, at age 91.
The Province of New York (1664-1783) (Dutch: Provincie Nieuw-Nederland or Provincie New York) was a British colony which included most of the present U. S. State of New York. The province originally included the current states of New Jersey, Delaware and Vermont, along with inland portions of Massachusetts and Maine. The province was named for James, Duke of York and brother to Charles II in 1664, when the colony was won from the Dutch.
Page 294, The Valley of the Trent, by Edwin Clarence Guillet - Trent River Valley (Ont.) - 1957 - 474 pages
Nathaniel Abbey born in the State of New York, aged Forty five years, came into this Province twenty one years ago, and having declared that he never drew any Land in this Province, and having produced proof that he did his duty during the late War, and having taken the Oath of Allegiance is allowed to locate the North part of Lot No 7 in the third Concession of the township of Smith.
Passenger and Immigration Index, 1500s-1900sPlace: Ontario Year: 1798
Primary immigrant: Abbey, Nathaniel
Permanent entry number: 2934020
Source publication code: 9045.5
Source publication page number: 140
Source publication: STRATFORD-DEVAI, FAWNE, and BRUCE S. ELLIOTT. "Alphabetical List of Locations by the Land Board, Newcastle District, 1819-1825." In Families (Ontario Genealogical Society, Toronto), Part I, vol. 34:3 (August 1995), pp. 138-147 (A-C); Part II, vol. 34:4 (November 1995), pp. 208-221 (C-J); Part III, vol. 35:1 (February 1996), pp. 26-39 (K-P); Part IV, vol. 35:2 (August 1996), pp. 88-99 (P-Y).
Source annotation: Date and port of arrival or date and place of first mention of residence in the New World. Extracted from minutes and reports of the Newcastle District Land Board located at the Archives of Ontario as RG1, C-I-3, Vols. 139-140. Lot description, lot number, concession number, township, number of acres, country of birth, and other genealogical information are also provided.
It is surmised that brothers Nathaniel (age 28) and Isaac Abbey (age 27) and, along with their sister Dorcas Abbey (age 26) and their nephew Clement Neff (age 10?) came to Northumberland Co., Ontario, Canada West from New York about 1798. They were some of the pioneering settlers of Durham Co., Ontario, Canada. If this connection is accurate, the Abbey ancestry can be connected through their father Isaac Abbe all the way back to John Abbe, born about 1587 in West Halton, Lincolnshire, England. His son, John Abbe, Jr. of Norwich, Norfolk Co., England emigrated to the United States about 1635 and married Mary Loring in 1635 at Wenham, Essex Co., MA.
Leslie Wilson of Canada has provided the following information.
The 1851 Charles and Oliver were sons of Isaac Abbey & Lucinda Bradley, and grandsons of Nathaniel Abbey b 1773/74 NY d 1825/26 Hope & Mary____ b Apr 11 1777 d Mar 29 1869. If you recall, Lucinda Bradley was the daughter of Dorcas Abbey (believed to be a sister of Nathaniel #1 and his brother Isaac) and Oliver Bradley. Isaac Abbey, brother of the 1773/74 - 1825/26 Nathaniel Abbey, had no surviving issue. Lucinda & her husband Isaac did not help matters because they named the boys, Charles Oliver Abbey and Oliver Nathaniel Abbey!!!
It has been argued that Isaac Abbey, husband of Anne, was the father of Dorcas Abbey-Bradley and Nathaniel Abbey #1. This is possible, but there are many circumstantial factors that argue equally that he was their brother.
1) The Abbey men were not long lived - average age of death (and yes, I removed the ones who were killed in the Civil War to come up with this) - about 50.
2) In the 1790s, very few men over the age of 50, without a housefull of strong sons and daughters between the ages of 14 and 21, took up homesteading in Upper Canada.
3) When Isaac died sometime between March of 1813 and March of 1814, it seems he died intestate - and the property did not pass to Nathaniel Abbey Sr. but rather to David King Bradley and Nathaniel Abbey Jr. If Nathaniel #1 had been Isaac's son, by British law it would have passed to the son. But Isaac died - without heirs it seems - so it passed to the two eldest male heirs of Dorcas Abbey-Bradley and Nathaniel Abbey, they being David King Bradley and Nathaniel Abbey Jr.
4) I suspect Isaac died of a disease that entered local lore as the Spotted Plague. It seems to have affected only those in the prime of life - two teenage boys died, everybody else was in their forties and fifties. Most were male.
This was not small pox - that had swept through the area in 1811, the people were familiar with it and of those who remained, most had acquired an immunity to it. This disease was especially virulent - death occured within 7 days of contact, the victim remained lucid until the end - the body swelled and large purple spots, like bruises, appeared all over the body within 24 hrs of death. Believe it or not, I was able to find a specialist in weird epidemic diseases (he once worked for the Atlanta Centre for Disease Control) who agreed to take on the project of finding out what this plague was. It only affected those living in Hope Twp, the only exception was a man from Hamilton Twp who had been called to the death bed of one of the victims to notarize the will. I expected Mr Lamb would take at least a month or two to work out a possible cause - he came back in less than 48 hours with the answer - a disease endemic to flying squirrels, carried from them to humans by lice. The first case appeared in early February - by the end of April, it had petered out. When I asked him how certain he was about this being the cause, his reply was: "99 percent, and you can quote me".
The scenario is that the men were out cutting down trees (this still is winter time work in southern Ontario), the boys found a downed tree with a litter of young flying squirrels, took them home and divided them up amongst their friends. The lice on the squirrels spread from person to person.
The disease cannot be passed by sputum or touching feces or urine of an infected person or squirrel - it must be introduced into the blood stream by an infected louse, and only a louse, not a flea or mosquito.
Anyway - I digress, although that is the sort of stuff my book is about, not the genealogy. The genealogies are needed to discover the whys and wherefores of the movements and interactions of this 1793-1813 group of people.
The United Empire Loyalists
When peace was established in 1783, many thousands of Loyalists, who were referred to as Tories by their fellow countrymen, left the newly created United States. They started their lives afresh under the British flag in Nova Scotia and in the unsettled lands above the St. Lawrence rapids and north of Lake Ontario.
This huge influx of settlers, who were known in Canada and England as the United Empire Loyalists, marked the first major wave of immigration by English-speaking settlers since the days of New France. Their arrival had two immediate consequences for the British colonies. Both the Atlantic province of Nova Scotia and the inland colony of Quebec had to be reorganized.
The previously unsettled forests to the west of the Bay of Fundy, once part of French Acadia, had been included in Nova Scotia. In 1784 this area was established as a separate colony known as New Brunswick. Cape Breton Island was simultaneously separated from Nova Scotia (a division that was ended in 1820). In all, some 35,000 Loyalist immigrants are believed to have settled in the Maritimes.
The settlement of the more inaccessible lands north and west of Lake Ontario and along the north shore of the upper St. Lawrence proceeded somewhat more slowly. About 5,000 Loyalists came to this area.
Upper and Lower Canada
It was clear that these United Empire Loyalists who had come to the western wilderness of what was still part of Quebec would not long be satisfied with the limited rights and French laws established by the Quebec Act. Accordingly, in 1791 the British Parliament enacted the Constitutional Act, whereby Quebec was split into the two provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. Each of these was to be governed by a legislative council appointed for life and a legislative assembly elected by the people.
The right to be represented in a lawmaking assembly was something new for the French-speaking inhabitants of the lower province. Legislative assemblies had been in existence in Nova Scotia since 1758, in Prince Edward Island since 1773, and in New Brunswick since 1786. Representative government, however, was not responsible government, as was to be demonstrated before another 50 years had passed.
CANADA WEST DISTRICTS, COUNTIES & TOWNSHIPS OF 1846
In 1842 Upper and Lower Canada united to form the Province of Canada. Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) became known as Canada West while Lower Canada (present day Quebec) became known as Canada East.
Canada West was divided into twenty districts, which are then subdivided into counties, ridings and townships. The districts varied greatly in size, with the Western District containing 29 townships and the Prince Edward District containing 6.
As large districts were settled, and populations grew, smaller districts were formed from one large one. Colborne District was formed from Newcastle District; Simcoe District was formed from Home District and Huron District was formed from London District.
Townships also varied in size, with some as large as 90,000 acres and others as small as 20,000. Most townships were laid out in square blocks but some were not - and their divisions are beyond description. The townships are divided into concessions, generally running east to west, and north to south. However when a river ran through a township, the lots were laid out to face the river, no matter what direction that was. Concessions were generally divided into lots of 200 acres each, and half lots of 100 acres each.
Almost half the surveyed lands of Upper Canada were purchased after 1818 from native tribes.
Census Returns Ė 1803 to 1850 Haldimand Township, Northumberland County (contíd).
The first census we have is the 1803 census. At this time the population of Haldimand is 312 persons and there are three Bradley households enumerated. The households are those of Nathan Bradley with 9 family members, William Harden Bradley with 3 family members and Lemuel H. Bradley with 3 family members. We know from other research that Nathan Bradley is married to Elizabeth Harden, William Bradley is married to Deborah Tripp and Lemuel Bradley is married to Catherine Waite. Both the Tripp and Waite families were prominent families in Haldimand who also came to Canada from the USA after the American Revolution. Furthermore, we know from this census that Nathan and Elizabeth have 3 male children less than 16 years of age (likely Hamilton; Nathan and an unknown male child), 3 female children under 16 years of age (likely Susanna; Hannah and Mary) and one male child over 16 years of age (likely Oliver). We also know that William and Deborah have only one child, a female under 16 years of age (likely Lucinda or Lucina), whereas, Lemuel and Catherine have one child, male under 16 years of age (likely Sisson).
The format of succeeding census follows this same pattern.
The 1804 census adds an Oliver Bradley family consisting only of Oliver and his wife. It can also be noted that the Nathan Bradley family decreases by one in the category of males over 16 years of age in this census. Therefore, it stands to reason that Oliver was the son of Nathan enumerated as the male child over 16 years of age that was listed in the 1803 census. The number of male children increases by one and I have assumed this represents the birth of Hiram. We can further make an educated guess at the birth year of Oliver. Assuming he was 18-20 years of age when he married, his birth year would be 1786-1788. What was the name of Oliverís wife? It will be shown later (1822 census) that a Bradley widow Ė named Dorcas Bradley is enumerated and Oliver no longer appears in any later census returns. I have assumed that Oliverís wifeís name is Dorcas Abbey and not Brown as reported in the family Bible of Irene Price of Kentucky.
In the 1805 census we can see that there is a shift in category on the female side. I believe this represents the capture of the age of Hannah who was reported to have been born 1790. The remaining female is I believe Mary who was born in 1791. We can also see the families of William and Lemuel increase. In the case of Williamís family the additional male child probably represents the birth of Abraham or Abram. In the case of Lemuelís family we cannot identify the name of the additional female child.
Examination of the 1806 census reveals that Oliver and Dorcas now have a son less than 16 years of age. I take this to represent the birth of Levi Bradley and to have occurred between April of 1805 and April of 1806. We also see the reduction of one female in the adult category from Nathanís family. This could mean that a marriage took place since the last census --- possibly the marriage of Hannah.
The 1807 census shows an increase of a male child in Nathanís family. This is likely the birth of Sylvanus, which is recorded as Apr. 1807.
The April 1807 census shows us that Oliver now has another child, a female under the age of 16 years of age. Unfortunately, we do not know the name of this child.
The 1808 census shows us another male child born to Oliver and Dorcas. We might assume this child is Isaac. We can note also that by the 1808 census the infant female child no longer appears raising the possibility that she died in infancy. We also see Lemuelís family increase by one male under 16 years of age.
In the 1809 census we note that Williamís family increases by 1 female child and Lemuelís family increases by 1 female child but drops 1 male child. This may be the case of another infant or child death. In the 1810 census we see that one of Nathanís female children moves into the category age 16 to 60 years. We do not know the name of this child but it may be Mary.
The census of 1815 shows an addition of a George Bradley family consisting of 3 persons. George Bradley, his wife and a female child under the age of 16. Also note that the family of Nathan Bradley decreases by one male over the age of 16 years in this census. It is reasonable to assume then that George is a son of Nathan and Elizabeth.
Note that the April 1816 census reports that the Nathan Bradley family has one male over the age of 60. This would be Nathan himself and thus we can place his birth year at 1754 or 1755.
Note that in the 1817 census his wife Elizabeth becomes over 60 years of age. Therefore, her birth year is calculated as 1756 or 1757. Other sources have indicated that Elizabeth was born in 1760. I have assumed that 1760 is the correct year and this recording of the census data is an error.
The census for the year 1818 misses accounting for the Nathan Bradley family.
If we now examine the 1819 census we see that the Nathan Bradley family has only one person over the age of 60 years. This changes to two persons over the age of 60 in the year 1821. This is likely a simple error in recording of the 1819 and 1820 data. I have assumed that Elizabethís birth occurred in 1760 and therefore, she would have turned 60 years of age in the year 1820. The 1821 census would therefore capture her as a female over 60 years of age.
The census of 1821 indicates the first enumeration of a Hamilton Bradley family. Again the family of Nathan decreases by two males and we can assume that this Hamilton is the son of Nathan and Elizabeth.