Nathaniel Abbey was born 1772 in Dutchess Co., Province of New York, and died
in 1825 or 1826 in Hope Twp., Durham
Co., Upper Canada, at about age 53. He is
the son of
Co., CT, and and Darla Potts
of Coventry, Tolland Co., CT.
Mary "Polly" Winters was
born April 11, 1777, in Dutchess Co., Province of New York, and died
March 29, 1869, at the home of her daughter, Lurenda (Abbey) Henry, Port Oshawa, Whitby East Twp., Durham Co., Ontario, Canada, at age 92.
Buried Pioneer Cemetery, Whitby East
Twp, Durham Co., Ontario, Canada.
Nathaniel Abbey and Mary
"Polly" Winters were
married Unknown in Dutchess Co., NY.
Nathaniel Abbey and
Mary "Polly" (Winters) Abbey had nine children:
Ontario was known as: "Upper Canada" from
26, 1791, to February 10, 1841;
"Canada West" from February 10, 1841, to July
1, 1867; and
"Ontario" after July 1, 1867.
Nathaniel Abbey was born about 1775 in
Dutchess Co., Province of New York.
Mary "Polly" Winters was born April 11,
1777, in Dutchess Co., Province of New York.
On September 21, 1812,
Nathaniel Abbey petitioned for a lease on the broken front of Lot No. 25, in
front of the 1st Concession of Hope Township, a Reserve.
Nathaniel Abbey petitioned for a lease on the
broken front of Lot No. 25, in front of the 1st Concession of Hope Township, a
On June 23, 1819, Isaac
Phineas Abbey petitioned to be
recognized as a Settler, and was assigned One Hundred Acres of Land in the North
Half of Lot No. Eight, in the Third Concession of Smith Township, Newcastle
District, Upper Canada. He stated that he was age 21, was born in the United
States, and had been in this Province 20 years. The Final Settlement Date was
November 27, 1824.
Phineas Abbey Settler Land Petition
dated June 23, 1819.
died in 1825 or 1826 in Hope Twp., Durham Co., Upper Canada, at about age 51.
Canadian Census shown Mary Abby (age 80) born in the United States is a widow
and is living in the Henry household, South Waterloo, Waterloo Twp., Waterloo
Co., Canada West.
Mary "Polly" (Winters)
March 29, 1869, in Port Oshawa, Whitby East Twp., Durham Co., Ontario, Canada, at age 91.
The Oshawa Vindicator, Port Oshawa,
Ontario, Canada, March 30, 1869
Died, at Port
Oshawa, on the evening of the 29th. inst. Polly Abby, in the 92nd year of
her age. The deceased was one of the first settlers of the Township of
Hope. She has left two sons and four daughters, and a large number of
grandchildren. The funeral will take place at 2 o'clock this (Wednesday)
afternoon, at the residence of Elder Thomas Henry, where a sermon will be
delivered by Elder J.P. Nelson or the Rev. A. Hunt. The deceased was the
mother of Elder Henry.
Leigh Larson note:
Mary "Polly" (Winters) Abbey is the
mother in-law of Elder Thomas Henry.
The following nine pages of recollections and thoughts were
compiled by Rowena Jane Bragg, who died in the early 1990s at age 103. Some mention is
made of the Abbey branch. This information was forwarded by Eleanor Whyley, a
descendant of Lucinda Bradley.
Click here for
the PDF file for Nathaniel Abbey's birth data based upon his leasing of land
dated September 21, 1812.
The Province of New York
(1664-1783) (Dutch: Provincie Nieuw-Nederland or Provincie New York) was a
British colony which included most of the present U. S. State of New York. The
province originally included the current states of New Jersey, Delaware and
Vermont, along with inland portions of Massachusetts and Maine. The province was
named for James, Duke of York and brother to Charles II in 1664, when the colony
was won from the Dutch.
Page 294, The Valley of the Trent,
by Edwin Clarence
Trent River Valley (Ont.)
- 1957 - 474 pages
Abbey born in the State of New York, aged Forty five years,
came into this Province twenty
one years ago, and having declared that he never drew any Land
in this Province, and having produced proof that he did his duty
during the late War, and having taken the Oath of Allegiance is
allowed to locate the North part of Lot No 7 in the third
Concession of the township of Smith.
Durham County (area
376,397 acres) is a historic county in the Canadian province of Ontario. It was
named from the English County and city.
Durham County was
created in 1792. It was comprised of the townships of Cartwright, Manvers, Cavan,
Darlington, Clarke and Hope, and portions of what is now Peterborough County,
created in 1838. It was united administratively with Northumberland County as
the United Counties of Northumberland and Durham from 1800 until Durham County
was dissolved on January 1, 1974.
Effective January 1, 1974, about half of Durham County was merged with Ontario
County to create the Regional Municipality of Durham. The township of Manvers
was transferred to Victoria County, which is now the city of Kawartha Lakes,
Cavan was transferred to Peterborough County, where it is now part of Cavan-Millbrook-North
Monaghan, and Hope was transferred to Northumberland County, where it is now
part of the town of Port Hope.
The townships of Darlington and Clarke were amalgamated into the Town of
Newcastle, renamed Clarington in 1993, and the township of Cartwright was
combined with the Ontario County townships of Scugog and Reach to create a new
Township of Scugog.
Cartwright - Area 37,600 acres. Located in the northwest portion of Durham
County, touching Lake Scugog. The Township was opened in 1816. The name is in
honour of Richard Cartwright. Mostly settled between 1850 to 1858 by Irish
immigrants. Community centres: Purple Hill, Caesarea, Scugog. This Township is
now in Scugog Township.
Cavan - Area 62,296 acres. Settled in 1816. Community centres : Millbrook, Cavan
and Carmel. This Township is now in Cavan-Millbrook-North Monaghan Township in
Peterborough County .
Clarke - Area, 68,500 acres. Was opened in 1792 and named in honour of General
Alured Clarke. Community centres: Newcastle, Orono, Kendall, Leskard. This
Township is now in Clarington Municipality.
Darlington - Area, 68,907 acres. Opened in 1792 and named after the ancient
English town. Community centres, Bowmanville, Enniskillen, Tyrone, Courtice.
(the settlement was mostly Irish). This Township is now in Clarington
Hope - Area, 62,959 acres. First settlement was in the town of Port Hope. The
Township as opened in 1792 and named in honour Colonel Henry Hope, a member of
the Legislative Council of Canada. The Township is now the Town of Port Hope in
Manvers - Area 69,923 acres. Opened in 1816. Named in honour of Charles
Pierrepont, 1st Earl Manvers. Community centres: Pontypool, Nanvers, Yelverton,
Bethany, Brunswick. Now in the City of Kawartha Lakes.
Passenger and Immigration Index,
It is surmised that brothers
Nathaniel (age 28) and Isaac
Abbey (age 27) and, along with their sister Dorcas Abbey (age
26) and their nephew Clement Neff (age 10?) came to Northumberland Co., Ontario,
Canada West from New York about 1798. They were some of the pioneering settlers
of Durham Co., Ontario, Canada. If this connection is accurate, the Abbey
ancestry can be connected through their father Isaac Abbe all the way back to John Abbe, born about 1587 in West Halton, Lincolnshire, England. His son, John Abbe,
Jr. of Norwich, Norfolk Co., England emigrated to the United States about
1635 and married Mary Loring in 1635 at Wenham, Essex Co., MA.
Leslie Wilson of Canada has
provided the following information.
The 1851 Charles and Oliver
were sons of Isaac Abbey & Lucinda Bradley, and grandsons of Nathaniel Abbey b
1773/74 NY d 1825/26 Hope & Mary____ b Apr 11 1777 d Mar 29 1869. If you
recall, Lucinda Bradley was the daughter of Dorcas Abbey (believed to be a
sister of Nathaniel #1 and his brother Isaac) and Oliver Bradley. Isaac Abbey,
brother of the 1773/74 - 1825/26 Nathaniel Abbey, had no surviving issue.
Lucinda & her husband Isaac did not help matters because they named the boys,
Charles Oliver Abbey and Oliver Nathaniel Abbey!!!
It has been argued that Isaac
Abbey, husband of Anne, was the father of Dorcas Abbey-Bradley and Nathaniel
Abbey #1. This is possible, but there are many circumstantial factors that
argue equally that he was their brother.
1) The Abbey men were not long
lived - average age of death (and yes, I removed the ones who were killed in the
Civil War to come up with this) - about 50.
2) In the 1790s, very few men
over the age of 50, without a housefull of strong sons and daughters between the
ages of 14 and 21, took up homesteading in Upper Canada.
3) When Isaac died sometime
between March of 1813 and March of 1814, it seems he died intestate - and the
property did not pass to Nathaniel Abbey Sr. but rather to David King Bradley
and Nathaniel Abbey Jr. If Nathaniel #1 had been Isaac's son, by British law it
would have passed to the son. But Isaac died - without heirs it seems - so it
passed to the two eldest male heirs of Dorcas Abbey-Bradley and Nathaniel Abbey,
they being David King Bradley and Nathaniel Abbey Jr.
4) I suspect Isaac died of a
disease that entered local lore as the Spotted Plague. It seems to have affected
only those in the prime of life - two teenage boys died, everybody else was in
their forties and fifties. Most were male.
This was not small pox - that
had swept through the area in 1811, the people were familiar with it and of
those who remained, most had acquired an immunity to it. This disease was
especially virulent - death occured within 7 days of contact, the victim
remained lucid until the end - the body swelled and large purple spots, like
bruises, appeared all over the body within 24 hrs of death. Believe it or not,
I was able to find a specialist in weird epidemic diseases (he once worked for
the Atlanta Centre for Disease Control) who agreed to take on the project of
finding out what this plague was. It only affected those living in Hope Twp,
the only exception was a man from Hamilton Twp who had been called to the death
bed of one of the victims to notarize the will. I expected Mr Lamb would take
at least a month or two to work out a possible cause - he came back in less than
48 hours with the answer - a disease endemic to flying squirrels, carried from
them to humans by lice. The first case appeared in early February - by the end
of April, it had petered out. When I asked him how certain he was about this
being the cause, his reply was: "99 percent, and you can quote me".
The scenario is that the men
were out cutting down trees (this still is winter time work in southern Ontario),
the boys found a downed tree with a litter of young flying squirrels, took them
home and divided them up amongst their friends. The lice on the squirrels
spread from person to person.
The disease cannot be passed by
sputum or touching feces or urine of an infected person or squirrel - it must be
introduced into the blood stream by an infected louse, and only a louse, not a
flea or mosquito.
Anyway - I digress, although
that is the sort of stuff my book is about, not the genealogy. The genealogies
are needed to discover the whys and wherefores of the movements and interactions
of this 1793-1813 group of people.
When peace was established in 1783, many
thousands of Loyalists, who were referred to as Tories by their fellow
countrymen, left the newly created United States. They started their lives
afresh under the British flag in Nova Scotia and in the unsettled lands above
the St. Lawrence rapids and north of Lake Ontario.
This huge influx of settlers, who were known
in Canada and England as the United Empire Loyalists, marked the first major
wave of immigration by English-speaking settlers since the days of New France. Their arrival had two immediate consequences for the British colonies.
Both the Atlantic province of Nova Scotia and the inland colony of Quebec
had to be reorganized.
The previously unsettled forests to the west
of the Bay of Fundy, once part of French Acadia, had been included in Nova
Scotia. In 1784 this area was established as a separate colony known as New
Brunswick. Cape Breton Island was simultaneously separated from Nova Scotia (a
division that was ended in 1820). In all, some 35,000 Loyalist immigrants are
believed to have settled in the Maritimes.
The settlement of the more inaccessible lands
north and west of Lake Ontario and along the north shore of the upper St.
Lawrence proceeded somewhat more slowly. About 5,000 Loyalists came to this
Upper and Lower Canada
It was clear that these United Empire
Loyalists who had come to the western wilderness of what was still part of
Quebec would not long be satisfied with the limited rights and French laws
established by the Quebec Act. Accordingly, in 1791 the British Parliament
enacted the Constitutional Act, whereby Quebec was split into the two provinces
of Upper and Lower Canada. Each of these was to be governed by a legislative
council appointed for life and a legislative assembly elected by the people.
The right to be
represented in a lawmaking assembly was something new for the French-speaking
inhabitants of the lower province. Legislative assemblies had been in existence
in Nova Scotia since 1758, in Prince Edward Island
since 1773, and in New Brunswick since 1786. Representative government, however,
was not responsible government, as was to be demonstrated before another 50
years had passed.
CANADA WEST DISTRICTS, COUNTIES & TOWNSHIPS OF 1846
In 1842 Upper and Lower Canada united to form
the Province of Canada.
(present-day Ontario) became known as Canada West while Lower
Canada (present day Quebec) became known as Canada East.
Canada West was divided into twenty districts,
which are then subdivided into counties, ridings and townships. The districts
varied greatly in size, with the Western District containing 29 townships and
the Prince Edward District containing 6.
As large districts were settled, and
populations grew, smaller districts were formed from one large one. Colborne
District was formed from Newcastle District; Simcoe District was formed from
Home District and Huron District was formed from London District.
Townships also varied in size, with some as
large as 90,000 acres and others as small as 20,000. Most townships were laid
out in square blocks but some were not - and their divisions are beyond
description. The townships are divided into concessions, generally running east
to west, and north to south. However when a river ran through a township, the
lots were laid out to face the river, no matter what direction that was.
Concessions were generally divided into lots of 200 acres each, and half lots of
100 acres each.
Almost half the surveyed lands of Upper Canada
were purchased after 1818 from native tribes.
Census Returns Ė 1803 to 1850 Haldimand Township,
Northumberland County (contíd).
William Harden Bradley
Lemuel H. Bradley
The first census we have
is the 1803 census. At this time the population of Haldimand is 312 persons and
there are three Bradley households enumerated. The households are those of
Nathan Bradley with 9 family members, William Harden Bradley with 3 family
members and Lemuel H. Bradley with 3 family members. We know from other research
that Nathan Bradley is married to Elizabeth Harden, William Bradley is married
to Deborah Tripp and Lemuel Bradley is married to Catherine Waite. Both the
Tripp and Waite families were prominent families in Haldimand who also came to
Canada from the USA after the American Revolution. Furthermore, we know from
this census that Nathan and Elizabeth have 3 male children less than 16 years of
age (likely Hamilton; Nathan and an unknown male child), 3 female children under
16 years of age (likely Susanna; Hannah and Mary) and one male child over 16
years of age (likely Oliver). We also know that William and Deborah have only
one child, a female under 16 years of age (likely Lucinda or Lucina), whereas,
Lemuel and Catherine have one child, male under 16 years of age (likely Sisson).
The format of succeeding
census follows this same pattern.
Apr. 9, 1804 Pop. = 356
William H. Bradley
The 1804 census adds an Oliver Bradley family consisting only
of Oliver and his wife. It can also be noted that the Nathan Bradley family
decreases by one in the category of males over 16 years of age in this census.
Therefore, it stands to reason that Oliver was the son of Nathan enumerated as
the male child over 16 years of age that was listed in the 1803 census. The
number of male children increases by one and I have assumed this represents the
birth of Hiram. We can further make an educated guess at the birth year of
Oliver. Assuming he was 18-20 years of age when he married, his birth year would
be 1786-1788. What was the name of Oliverís wife? It will be shown later (1822
census) that a Bradley widow Ė named Dorcas Bradley is enumerated
and Oliver no longer appears in any later census returns. I have assumed that
Oliverís wifeís name is Dorcas Abbey
and not Brown as reported in the family Bible of Irene Price of Kentucky.
Apr. 9 Pop. = 376
In the 1805 census we can see that there is a shift in
category on the female side. I believe this represents the capture of the age of
Hannah who was reported to have been born 1790. The remaining female is I
believe Mary who was born in 1791. We can also see the families of William and
Lemuel increase. In the case of Williamís family the additional male child
probably represents the birth of Abraham or Abram. In the case of Lemuelís
family we cannot identify the name of the additional female child.
Apr. Pop. = 448
Examination of the 1806 census reveals that Oliver and Dorcas
now have a son less than 16 years of age. I take this to represent the birth of
Levi Bradley and to have occurred between April of 1805 and April of 1806. We
also see the reduction of one female in the adult category from Nathanís family.
This could mean that a marriage took place since the last census --- possibly
the marriage of Hannah.
Apr. Pop. = 479
Apr. 11 Pop. = 530
The 1807 census shows an
increase of a male child in Nathanís family. This is likely the birth of
Sylvanus, which is recorded as Apr. 1807.
The April 1807 census
shows us that Oliver now has another child, a female under the age of 16 years
of age. Unfortunately, we do not know the name of this child.
The 1808 census shows us another male child born to Oliver
and Dorcas. We might assume this child is Isaac. We can note also that by the
1808 census the infant female child no longer appears raising the possibility
that she died in infancy. We also see Lemuelís family increase by one male under
16 years of age.
Apr. Pop. = Un-stated
Oliver (son of Nathan Sr.)
Apr. Pop. = 627
Oliver (son of Nathan Sr.)
In the 1809 census we note that Williamís family increases by
1 female child and Lemuelís family increases by 1 female child but drops 1 male
child. This may be the case of another infant or child death. In the 1810 census
we see that one of Nathanís female children moves into the category age 16 to 60
years. We do not know the name of this child but it may be Mary.
Apr. Pop. Un-stated
Oliver (son of Nathan Sr.)
Apr. Pop. Un-stated
Apr. Pop. = 752
George (son of Nathan Sr.)
The census of 1815 shows an addition of a George Bradley
family consisting of 3 persons. George Bradley, his wife and a female child
under the age of 16. Also note that the family of Nathan Bradley decreases by
one male over the age of 16 years in this census. It is reasonable to assume
then that George is a son of Nathan and Elizabeth.
Apr. Pop. = 844
Note that the April 1816 census reports that the Nathan
Bradley family has one male over the age of 60. This would be Nathan himself and
thus we can place his birth year at 1754 or 1755.
Apr. Pop. = 886
George (son of Nathan Sr.)
Note that in the 1817 census his wife Elizabeth becomes over
60 years of age. Therefore, her birth year is calculated as 1756 or 1757. Other
sources have indicated that Elizabeth was born in 1760. I have assumed that 1760
is the correct year and this recording of the census data is an error.
Apr. Pop. = 1046
The census for the year 1818 misses accounting for the Nathan
Apr. Pop. = 1112
George (data illegible)
If we now examine the 1819 census we see that the Nathan
Bradley family has only one person over the age of 60 years. This changes to two
persons over the age of 60 in the year 1821. This is likely a simple error in
recording of the 1819 and 1820 data. I have assumed that Elizabethís birth
occurred in 1760 and therefore, she would have turned 60 years of age in the
year 1820. The 1821 census would therefore capture her as a female over 60 years
Apr. Pop. = 1180
Apr. Pop. = 1222
Oliver (son of Nathan Sr.)
Hamilton (son of Nathan Sr.)
The census of 1821
indicates the first enumeration of a Hamilton Bradley family. Again the family