Edward Armstrong Sr.




https://sites.rootsweb.com/~onleedsg/research-census.html

Edward Armstrong Sr. was born Unknown, and died 1795, in Elizabethtown Twp., Leeds Co., Upper Canada, at age Unknown. He is the son of Unknown Armstrong, and Unknown Unknown.

Catherine "Caty" Adams??? was born about 1750, in Unknown, and died after 1803, in Unknown. Buried in Lewis Cemetery, Granby, Oswego Co., NY. She is the daughter of Unknown.

Edward Armstrong Sr. and Catherine "Caty" Adams??? were married about 1765, in Unknown.

Edward Armstrong Sr. and Catherine "Caty" Adams??? Armstrong had at least 5 children:

  1. John H. Armstrong: Born about 1771 in British America; Died April 24, 1848, probably in the Front End of Yonge Twp., Leeds Co., District of Johnstown, Canada West (about age 77). Buried in Lewis Cemetery, Lewis Corners, Granby Twp., Oswego Co., NY. Married by banns, January 2, 1815, in Yonge Twp., Leeds Co., Province of Upper Canada, to Mary B. "Polly" Wood: Born 1800 in Leeds, Leeds Co., Province of Upper Canada; Died 1878 in Oswego, Oswego Co., NY (about age 78). Buried in Lewis Cemetery, Lewis Corners, Granby Twp., Oswego Co., NY.
  2. Edward Armstrong Jr.: Born before 1773, in British America; Died Unknown, in Grantham, Niagara Co., Ontario, Canada. Possibly Married about 1802, in Augusta Twp., Leeds Co., Province of Upper Canada, to Phoebe Malloy?: Born Unknown; Died Unknown.
  3. Margaret Armstrong: Born 1777 or 1778, in British North America; Died March 30, 1855, in the Village of Ingersoll, Oxford Co., Upper Canada (about age 75). Buried in Kirkwall Presbyterian  Cemetery, Flamborough, Wentworth Co., Ontario, Canada. Married (1) about 1794, in Leeds Co., Province of Quebec, to Theodorus Allen: Born September, 1763, in Massachusetts; Died 1800, in Augusta Twp., Leeds Co., Province of Upper Canada (about age 37). Married (2) Unknown, in Elizabethtown Twp., Leeds Co., Province of Upper Canada, to John Fletcher: Born 1774, in New Hampshire, British America; Died November 1, 1849, in the Village of Ingersoll, Oxford Co., Upper Canada (about age 75).
  4. Daughter Armstrong: Born before September 24, 1784, in Augusta Twp., Leeds Co., Province of Quebec; Died before September 24, 1784, in Augusta Twp., Leeds Co., Province of Quebec (age Infant).
  5. Adolphus Armstrong: Born about 1789, in Province of Quebec; Died September 25, 1828, in Eramosa, Wellington Co., Province of Upper Canada (about age 39). Married March 2, 1811, in Augusta Twp., Leeds Co., Province of Upper Canada, to Charity Dopp: Born 1789, in Augusta Twp., Leeds Co., Province of Quebec; Died 1832, in Goodwood, Uxbridge Co., Province of Upper Canada (about age 43).
  6. James Armstrong: Born about 1790, in Elizabethtown Twp., Leeds Co., Province of Upper Canada; Died 1867, in Grantham, Niagara Co., Ontario, Canada, at about age 77. Married March 1, 1822, in Unknown, to Catherine Hainer: Born 1799, in the Province of Upper Canada; Died Unknown.



TIMELINE

Ontario was known as: "Upper Canada" from December 26, 1791, to February 10, 1841; "Canada West" from February 10, 1841, to July 1, 1867; and "Ontario" after July 1, 1867.


General Burgoyne campaign map, 1777.


From freepages.rootsweb.com: Armstrong, Edward Sr..... of Elizabethtown, He is Dead, Suffered imprisonment in Albany gaol from 1777 to 1783, O.I.C. May 12, 1808.


   

Loyalist Thesis by Sophie Heather Jones, 2018.

 A map by Claude Joseph Sauthier and Matthäus Albrecht Lotter, of the Provinces of New-York and New Yersey, with a part of Pennsylvania and Canada or the Province of Quebec. Augsburg, 1777. Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.


   

Historic map of Albany and Schenectady Counties, NY. Maps courtesy of Kay Koslan.


   

The Old Albany Jail, or in Dutch, "Stadt Haus."

During the Revolutionary era, the city hall housed the Albany Committee of Correspondence - an extra-legal body that served as the civilian arm of the crusade for American liberties and also governed the city between 1775 and 1778. For a time, prisoners of war and Tories joined common criminals in the basement of the Albany jail. Beginning in 1780 - and intermittently until 1797, the New York State government also held sessions in the Court Street.

https://exhibitions.nysm.nysed.gov/albany/loc/cityhall.html#sh

In 1741 the city fathers thought it was time for new digs and a new building was constructed on the same location, surrounded by greenery and trees. It was much larger 3 story building of brick, but simple and plain. It had a steep roof and a belfry. It too had a jail. It was on the steps of this building that the Declaration of Independence was first read to the city in July, 1776 and where Ben Franklin first proposed the Albany Plan of Union – a confederation of the British colonies in 1754, 20 years before the Continental Congress was formed.


Edward Armstrong Sr. was born before 1773 in British America.

Catherine "Caty" Adams??? was born about 1750, in Unknown.

Edward Armstrong Sr. and Catherine "Caty" Adams??? were married about 1765, in Unknown.


Historic map of Albany and Schenectady Counties, NY. Map courtesy of Kay Koslan.


The Canadian Provinces established in 1791.


   

All Districts, and the Johnstown District, Upper Canada, 1800.


Edward Armstrong of Elizabeth Twp., Leeds Co., Upper Canada, was an U. E. Loyalist, and was imprisoned by the Rebels (the Colonial Army) in Albany, in 1777, on account of his loyalty to the Crown, and remained a prisoner there until the Treaty of Separation in 1783, when he was liberated. Edward Armstrong came to Canada in 1784, and chose his residence in Elizabethtown Twp., Leeds Co., Upper Canada. He died in Elizabethtown Twp., Leeds Co., Upper Canada, in 1795, which was before the formation of the U. E. List. On June 26, 1807, at York, Ontario, Upper Canada, Edward Armstrong Jr., requested that his father, Edward Armstrong, be placed on the List of U. E. Loyalists.


   

Older Handwritten Land Grant Map.


   

Newer Lettered Land Grant Map.


       

PDF images with Edward Armstrong and Allen original land holdings, and ca. 1860 map overlay with original lands highlighted highlighted.


   

From Haldimand Abstract Books.

Edward Armstrong Sr. is a refugee loyalist date of certificate is August 28, 1784. And the paperwork or when those were mustered out on October 12, 1784, by Colonel Edward Jessup's Corps were to be the first settlers of the new Royal Township (from the bottom of page 87). It lists at the top of page 86 that they are going to Township 7. There are 2 males above age 10 and 2 females under age 10, which means the males could be born on/before 1773 and the females would be born on/after 1773. The one female could be Margaret. The boys should be John H. Armstrong, and Edward, Jr. The girls should be Margaret Armstrong, and Unknown Female.


   

All of the children of Edward Armstrong Sr., and most of the children of Thomas Armstrong, Sr., U. E. Loyalists, were eligible to receive a land grant based upon their fathers' loyalty to the King of England. Thomas Armstrong Jr. was Expunged from the U. E. Loyalist List in 1804 - 1805.


Edward Armstrong Sr. died 1795, in Elizabethtown Twp., Leeds Co., Upper Canada, at age Unknown.

In 1803, Catherine "Caty" (Unknown) Armstrong certified that in 1795 she, along with her eldest son, John H. Armstrong of the late Edward Armstrong, had signed the transfer of Lot 17 Con 2 Elizabethtown, to James McDonald (1st Heir & Devisee Commission v.6 Eastern Dist Location Certificates, p.74).

In the 1803 Elizabethtown Census, Caty Armstrong is living alone, while her young sons, Adolphus Armstrong and and James Armstrong, are living with their sister, Margaret and her family with John Fletcher.

The British Constitutional Act of 1791 officially divided the old colony of "Province of Quebec" into the primarily French-speaking "Province of Lower Canada," and the primarily English-speaking "Province of Upper Canada." Upper Canada was located upriver, closest to the source of the St. Lawrence river.

In 1841, the Act of Union officially united the two Provinces into the single Province of Canada, with the creation of Canada East, Province of Canada, and Canada West, Province of Canada.

Ontario was known as: "Province of Upper Canada" from December 26, 1791, to February 10, 1841; "Canada West" from February 10, 1841, to July 1, 1867; and "Ontario" after July 1, 1867.

Canada was founded on July 1, 1867. On this date, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia linked to form the sovereign dominion of Canada in a process called confederation. At this time, Upper Canada and Lower Canada became Quebec and Ontario. Therefore the new confederation comprised of four provinces: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario. The confederation led to a territorial evolution leading to the incorporation of other parts of British North America into the newly formed entity of Canada to form what is today contemporary Canada. Newfoundland and Labrador was the last province to be incorporated into the confederation in 1949. For a period of many years since Confederation, Canada has undergone many territorial changes and expansions, eventually forming the current union of ten provinces and three territories.

The formation of Canada and attainment of its independence was a gradual process. Despite the existence of a responsible government in Canada, the United Kingdom continued to claim sovereignty over the land until the end of the World War I. The 1931 passing of the statute of Westminster recognized Canada as equal with the United Kingdom but the country was denied the power to amend its constitution. Dependence on the British parliament in Canada was removed in 1982 after patriation of the constitution. Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state.

Who were the Loyalists? The most common depictions are of wealthy aristocrats, more concerned with making money than the plight of the poor, working-class families living under tyranny. But what if I told you that in Albany, New York, the home of Philip Schuyler, it was almost the exact opposite situation? Here most Loyalists were poor families called “tenant farmers”. They farmed land for wealthy families like the Schuylers and their relatives, keeping a portion of what they grew for themselves and giving a portion to their landlords, along with money for rent. They also had to perform other labor for their landlords, like the backbreaking work of clearing new fields, caring for livestock, and transporting goods to be sold. Sometimes the arrangement was a relatively fair one, but other times these tenants felt that the Schuylers and the other landlords used their power and money to squeeze too much from their tenants.

In the 1766, before the Revolutionary War, many of these tenants rose up against their landlords in what is known as Prendergast’s Rebellion, after one of its main leaders, William Prendergast. It is hard today to understand just how important control of land was in the 18th century. People lived and died by the land. If you controlled the land, you controlled the money, the livelihoods of others, the local government, everything. The tenant farmers felt that their concerns weren’t being listened to in the local government, which was also made up of their landlords, and so, in line with the Revolutionary spirit around them, they took up arms to defend their rights. They refused taxation without adequate representation, and demanded that abuses of power by those who both controlled the land and the government be stopped. The land-holding families quickly organized their own supporters to confront them, capturing Prendergast and putting him on trial. William Prendergast was sentenced to death by a jury that included members of the Sons of Liberty. It didn’t matter that he had stood up for his rights- he had stood up against the wrong people. Before he could be executed though, the British Crown interceded on his behalf. Rather than risk an all-out rebellion by the tenant farmers, the Crown pardoned Prendergast. This helped to calm the tenant farmers, but it enraged the landholders. Years later, Thomas Jefferson would accuse the King of “[exciting] domestic insurrections amongst us…”. Us. The landlords.

These landlords had been expressing more and more discontent with the Royal British government since the end of the French and Indian War. British regulation of commerce cut into their business. They wanted a large say in the government. The Proclamation Line meant that they couldn’t claim Native American lands to the west in order to increase their holdings. In short, they felt that the Crown controlled the land, the money, and the government. Sound familiar? Of course, their complaints were legitimate, while the concerns of the tenant farmers were to be put down with force.

By the time that the Revolutionary War broke out in 1775, the landlords considered the British Crown to be their biggest threat to liberty. To many tenant farming families, the Crown represented a check against the power of the Landlords. The Revolutionaries, led by the land-holding aristocracy, needed to keep tight control over those tenant farmers who sided with the Crown. Many of them were arrested for refusing to join the Revolution. Some were executed, others imprisoned. Eventually the prison was so crowded with Loyalists that the Albany Committee to Detect and Defeat Conspiracies decided to use the old fort as a prison camp for anyone who dared to speak out against them. A sense of hysteria swept over Albany, similar to the “Red Scare” that gripped America in the 1950’s. Even people without any Loyalist connections could be arrested. Almost every day people were told that they had to pay £100 to be released, even after being found innocent. This could be as much as two years of income for some families. It became very dangerous to be known as a Loyalist in Albany.

So why does this history matter? And why do I talk about it at the Schuyler’s home? After all, the Schuylers were Revolutionaries, not Loyalists. There are two answers to this question. The first, and simplest, is that to understand who Philip Schuyler was and why he joined the Revolution, we should have a clear understanding of who the “other side” really was, beyond the myths about Loyalists as wealthy merchants appalled at the idea of Democracy.

New York Land and Property at Family Search

New York Church Records at Family Search

 

Leeds County was established in 1792, one of the original nineteen counties created by Governor John Graves Simcoe. It was named for the fifth Duke of Leeds, Francis Godolphin Osborne.

The area was first settled by United Empire Loyalists who arrived in 1784. Townships were set aside for specific soldiers, for instance Township 8 (Elizabethtown Township) was set aside for Jessup's Loyal Rangers.

In 1788 western Leeds County was opened for settlement, in the 1790's the rear townships were opened. Settlement was slow until after the war of 1812 when disbanded soldiers and British emigrants settled in the area. A majority of the British emigrants were from Scotland and arrived in 1816. Even more settlement occurred during the 1820's after the construction of the Rideau Canal.

1792 - 1798 - part of Eastern District.

1798 - 1849 - part of Leeds District.

1850 - present - Part of the municipality of the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville.

Grenville County was established as a county in Eastern District in 1792. It was named for British Secretary-of-State for Foreign Affairs, William Wyndham Grenville.

As with Leeds County, Grenville County's first settlers were United Empire Loyalists (specifically Jessup's Loyal Rangers) who arrived in 1784 and settled along the St. Lawrence River.

Grenville County is primarily rural but is also the home of several successful industries including the Canada Starch Company, the first starch factory in Canada (established 1858).

Edward Armstrong of Elizabethtown Twp., Leeds Co., Upper Canada, was an U. E. Loyalist, and was imprisoned by the Rebels in Albany, in 1777, on account of his loyalty, and remained a prisoner there until the Treaty of Separation in 1783, when he was liberated. Edward Armstrong came to Canada in 1784, and chose his residence in Elizabethtown Twp., Leeds Co., Upper Canada. He died in Elizabethtown Twp., Leeds Co., Upper Canada, in 1795, which was before the formation of the U. E. List. On June 26, 1807, at York, Ontario, Upper Canada, Edward Armstrong Jr., requested that his father, Edward Armstrong, be placed on the List of U. E. Loyalists. 

Edward Armstrong of Elizabeth Twp., Leeds Co., Upper Canada, was an U. E. Loyalist, and was imprisoned by the Rebels in Albany, Albany Co., New York, in the Spring of 1777, due to his loyalty to the Crown, and remained a prisoner there until the Treaty of Separation in 1783, when he was liberated. Edward Armstrong came to Canada in 1784, and chose his residence in Elizabethtown Twp., Leeds Co., Upper Canada. He died in Elizabethtown Twp., Leeds Co., Upper Canada, in 1795, which was before the formation of the U. E. List. On June 28, 1807, at York, Ontario, Upper Canada, Edward Armstrong Jr., requested that his father, Edward Armstrong, be placed on the List of U. E. Loyalists.

Loyalists

During the American Revolutionary War, residents of the American colonies were politically divided; many Americans were displeased with the British and striving for their independence from British rule. During this period of political unrest, those who sided with the British were viewed as traitors or rebels, and their opposition was met with violence. Individuals were forced to take sides, as even neutral parties were deemed rebels. Those who remained loyal to the crown were called Loyalists. During and after the war, the Loyalists were essentially pushed out of present-day America for their opposing views and left destitute with no where to go; they then turned to the British for relief. Initially, the Loyalists were hopeful that Britain would be able to successfully negotiate with the rebelling colonies, and that their land, homes, and possessions would be returned to them.[21] No such negotiations ever occurred and with the end of the war military payouts were dwindling. New laws were passed in New York state which allowed the Loyalists' property to be officially seized, and threats were made on the lives of Loyalists who may try to return. The Loyalists had no other option but to rely on the British and return to present-day Augusta and the neighbouring townships.

Britain's solution to the widespread poverty and homelessness was to provide the Loyalists with land grants which could be used to build new settlements and start over. These grants were also looked at as a reward for the men's loyalty to the crown. Originally, areas of Quebec were considered for division and distribution to the Loyalists; Quebec feared that the Loyalists would affect the area negatively, and could bring diseases such as measles into their community therefore the idea was abandoned. Major Samuel Holland, surveyor-general of Quebec was put in charge of surveying lands west of Quebec and assess their suitability for settlement. In 1783, Holland declared the land to be more than adequate for Loyalist settlements. The only remaining obstacle in the way of the Loyalists' land grants was the native population of Augusta; Britain would have to consider their land ownership when dividing the land. A man named Sir John Johnson was instructed to inquire as to which lands belonged to the native communities, and to purchase any land that they claimed as theirs. Captain Justus Sherwood, who remained in the area, was employed to provide a detailed survey of Augusta and the surrounding townships

By 1784, the Loyalists were becoming increasingly restless and began to petition the government for relief from their dire situation; they were scheduled to be settled for the Spring of 1784. The long waiting period to be settled was due in part to the fact the government knew they would need to provide the Loyalists with some tools and supplies in order for them to sustain themselves. The government intended to provide each settler with some seeds and livestock to begin farming, as well as a few essential tools such as axes, knives and hoes. Carpentry and blacksmithing tools were also to be distributed to be shared amongst groups of settlers. The land grants were to be granted based on military position and rank.

By the spring of 1784, supplies had been gathered and the land had been surveyed in detail and divided into lots to be drawn for. Batteaux and provisions were ready to be transported along with the Loyalist settlers to the new settlements. The area surrounding present-day Augusta Township was divided into two ranges of townships, the first of which being called the Royal Townships. There are seven Royal Townships, Augusta being the seventh and titled Royal Township Number Seven. Eventually, the townships were named, Augusta being named Princess Augusta after the third daughter of King George III. It was said that she was "not particularly thrilled" by the idea of this township, which was mostly empty wilderness, being named after her. In June 1784, the Loyalists finally embarked from Quebec down the St. Lawrence River to their new settlements; Edward Jessup's Corps were to be the first settlers of the new Royal Township.

From 1777 to 1783, imprisoned in Albany Gaol, Albany, Albany, New York, USA, for his Loyalty to the Crown (Upper Canada Land Petitions C-1610 p.49-51 v.5 Bundle A9/1 Petition of Edward Armstrong Jr.).

Edward is a refugee loyalist date of certificate is 28 Aug 1784. And the paperwork or when those were mustered out on 12 Oct 1784 by General Jessup (From the bottom of page 87). It lists at the top of page 86 that they are going to Township 7 (Augusta).

There are 2 males above age 10 and 2 females under age 10, which means the males could be born on/before 1773 and the females would be born on/after 1773.

1 female could be Margaret. The boys could be Edward, Jr. and I don't know but they would be born on/before 1773.


The system used by British surveyors to identify properties by townships, lots, and concessions in Upper Canada is still in use today.  This makes it relatively easy to determine the location of original grants and homesteads.  In 1783, British surveyors began laying out the townships where the United Empire Loyalists would be settled.  The original 9 Townships were Lancaster (not numbered), Charlottenburg (1), Cornwall (2), Osnabruck (3), Williamsburg (4), Matilda (5), Edwardsburg (6), Augusta (7), and Elizabethtown (8), near present-day Brockville.  

The next two townships, where the Mallorys settled, were Yonge (9) and Escott (10).  The name of Escott township was changed to Yonge and then back again so you will find designations such as "Yonge formerly Escott" and "Escott formerly Yonge" on early land records.  Each township was approximately 10 miles square and was divided into 10 or 11 Concessions beginning at the southern end and running north.    On maps, the Concessions are marked in Roman Numerals.  In cases where the riverfront created irregular shapes, the riverfront area was called the Front or Broken Front and lay in front of Concession I.  Each concession was divided into approximately 36 or 37 narrow 200 acre lots approximately 1/4 mile wide and a mile deep.  However, in the Yonge and Escott townships there were only 25 lots.  The lots were usually numbered from east to west.    In Yonge, they were numbered from east to west but in Escott the lots were numbered from west to east. Lots were identified by lot number, concession, and township.  For example, Nathaniel Mallory was originally assigned Lot 13, Concession 3 (III) in Township No. 10 formerly Escott now Yonge. 

At the Boston Public Library's online website, you can view the 1861 map of Leeds Grenville United Counties which includes the lot numbers and landowners.  


At The Canadian County Atlas Digital Project you can view 1880 maps online.  These maps are annotated with names of landowners. Yonge and Escott are located in Leeds County.


 

Before the American Revolution, all the 13 Atlantic Colonies south of Canada were loyal to the King of Great Britain - King George III. When the American Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776, many of the Loyalists were unable to live peacefully with the Revolutionists, as the Loyalists were thought to be outlaws and traitors. Property was seized, homes burned and some Loyalists were even arrested and imprisoned. Georgia, South Carolina, and New York were the Loyalists' strongholds, with most of the members for the British forces originally from the New York colony. By 1776, about 100,000 citizens were living east of the Ottawa River (Dist. of Quebec) - practically no white settlement had taken place west of the Ottawa River (Dist. of Montreal). The War of Independence went on for several years until 1783.

Thousands of families (mostly farmers) escaped to Nova Scotia (from which in 1784, the Province of New Brunswick was formed) and about 6,000 (lower than was once believed) had immigrated to the Province of Quebec (later known as Quebec and Ontario) - these lands being under British rule. After the disbandment of the various corps which were raised for the King, the officers and soldiers were rewarded grants of land by the British Government. - 10,000 acres for Lieut. Colonels on down to Privates who received 200 acres. They were also provided 3 years supply of clothing and food, also lumber to build homes. The land in the District of Montreal, fronting the St. Lawrence River was surveyed in 1783 and by 1784, fourteen townships (known by number only) were ready for settlement. They were set out approximately 10 miles square and divided into concessions by lines running parallel to the river. The townships, numbered from east to west - 6, 7 & 8 (later named Edwardsburg, Augusta & Elizabethtown) were settled by families of Major Edward Jessup's Corps (Loyal Rangers - raised in 1776); townships 7 & 8 were also settled by the 2nd Battalion of the King's Royal Regiment of New York (KRRNY) - raised in 1780. These three townships in 1784 had a population of 495 which included women and children. Many of the men whose families were not yet in Canada returned to the United States to gather them in. The settlers who were involved in active military service were given land grants at the river shore. The land inshore went to civilian United Empire Loyalists. By July of 1784, in townships 6, 7 & 8, 50 lots were settled and a number or huts were built in each of the townships fronting the St. Lawrence River. By October, the population totaled 567 residents. The first grist mill to service the whole area was built the same year at Cataraqui (Kingston) which was the only one for 3 to 4 years. In 1788, Sir Guy Carleton (Lord Dorchester) - Governor General of Canada, divided the District of Montreal into 4 districts - from east to west - Lunenburg, Mecklenburg, Nassau, and Hesse and on July 24th named the townships. From east to west, the townships in the District of Lunenburg were now named Lancaster, Charlottenburg, Cornwall, Osnabruck, Williamsburg, Matilda, Edwardsburg, Augusta, and Elizabethtown. Each district had a land board to award grants of 200 acres which were now being allotted to non-combatant Loyalists, to their sons upon reaching age 21 and to their daughters when eligible or upon marriage. By 1791, roughly 10,000 refugees had settled west of Montreal in the Province of Quebec.

Loyalist refugees had been trickling north to the harsh trackless wilderness of Canada throughout the war. The first to arrive reached Fort Niagara in 1776. Others moved up the Hudson River valley and emerged on the St. Lawrence River where they were eventually housed in refugee camps. At war's end the trickle became a flood. Not only did the ex-servicemen from several Loyalist regiments have to be resettled but so did several thousand civilian refugees. The Loyalists who journeyed to the northern shores of the St. Lawrence had many hardships as the only way of traveling was by canoe, ox cart or on foot. There were no roads - they traveled by the rivers and Indian pathways through the woods which were infested with wild animals such as bears, wolves, and cougars. Not only did they have to carry their few worldly possessions of clothing and household goods but had to camp at night by the wayside. They also had to provide food for themselves along the many miles to their destination.

The custom was for a settler, upon locating on his property, to immediately create a shanty or lean-to from the boughs of trees. This would be his only shelter from the weather until the winter set in when hopefully he had his log hut built with help from his neighbours. The huts could be 20 ft x 15 ft, built of round logs for a height of 7 or 8 ft with an elm bark roof - one window and a door with the open stone fireplace serving for both cooking and keeping the house warm. By 1789, the British Govt. was not supplying the Loyalists with rations of flour, pork, beef, salt & butter; they now had to rely on their own resources, often surviving famine and disease. Within a year, the settler was expected to clear and fence 5 acres of land. Their first crops consisted of oats, barley and wheat - they relied heavily on oat porridge. It was in the same year, 1789, on Nov. 9th that Sir Guy Carlton, the Governor General of Canada, wished to honour the men who remained loyal to Great Britain and "joined the Royal Standard in America before the Treaty of Separation in the year 1783," so proposed to the Executive Council that a register of persons falling into this category be prepared. Each person so listed was then allowed to have the designation "U.E." (United Empire Loyalist) after his name. Now, with the inflow of Loyalists, the English settlers demanded their own government, so the Canada Act (31 Dec. 1791) was born dividing the Province of Quebec into two provinces - Upper and Lower Canada separated by the Ottawa River. The first Governor of Upper Canada, Lieut.-Governor John Graves Simcoe on the 16th June 1792 divided the Province into counties then later (1792), the names of the districts were changed (from east to west) - Eastern, Midland, Home & Western Canada.

Also, I was looking at the rest of A Way Back in Time which features Caintown. Not sure how the various individuals found each other but one was a Walter Lee Simmons, related to John H Armstrong. Janet Nelson Read visited Walter Lee Simmons. Walter has since passed away and his son has all the information/documents. Anyway, Walter recorded the family, and he had the family as John H, so you must have it right! I see John Nelson as a brother to Samuel Bolton Armstrong. It is as follows: Mary (Polly) Wood: Born ca 1800 Married John H. Armstrong - 2 Jan. 1815 Yonge Twp. - Witnesses - Thomas Armstrong, John Kincaid (Rev. Wm. Smart, Presby). Residence - Hannibal, Oswego Co., New York.

Children - George Wood (b. 1837), James Delos (b. 1840), Jeremiah Frazier (b. 1840s) Samuel B., John Nelson, Clara, Jane, David & Eleanor.

Died 1878 in Hannibal, Lewis Corners Cemetery, Lewis Corners, Granby Township, Oswego County, New York State.

https://heritage.canadiana.ca/view/oocihm.lac_reel_h1655/205

 

 


 

 
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H-1133 is the first film